What are the cheapest ways to receive dollar/euro wire transfers?
Wanted to discuss the various options folks have used in the past and the charges. OFX: Currency broker - 2 percent to 0.5 percent on current USD INR price. Higher the amount, lower the charges. For 15k dollars, it was around 1.4p percent. Are there Indian banks or currency brokers which are better than this? I have heard about Indian Overseas Bank but haven't tried out
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No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India
This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got. I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are) Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010. One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit. Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells. So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain). Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided. It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)
Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles.India bought something and paid for it.State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.
Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.
The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.
Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally. Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no. From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period,the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground. 1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example seeRajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist.[...]Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.
Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
The Next Crypto Wave: The Rise of Stablecoins and its Entry to the U.S. Dollar Market
Author: Christian Hsieh, CEO of Tokenomy This paper examines some explanations for the continual global market demand for the U.S. dollar, the rise of stablecoins, and the utility and opportunities that crypto dollars can offer to both the cryptocurrency and traditional markets. The U.S. dollar, dominant in world trade since the establishment of the 1944 Bretton Woods System, is unequivocally the world’s most demanded reserve currency. Today, more than 61% of foreign bank reserves and nearly 40% of the entire world’s debt is denominated in U.S. dollars1. However, there is a massive supply and demand imbalance in the U.S. dollar market. On the supply side, central banks throughout the world have implemented more than a decade-long accommodative monetary policy since the 2008 global financial crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the need for central banks to provide necessary liquidity and keep staggering economies moving. While the Federal Reserve leads the effort of “money printing” and stimulus programs, the current money supply still cannot meet the constant high demand for the U.S. dollar2. Let us review some of the reasons for this constant dollar demand from a few economic fundamentals.
Demand for U.S. Dollars
Firstly, most of the world’s trade is denominated in U.S. dollars. Chief Economist of the IMF, Gita Gopinath, has compiled data reflecting that the U.S. dollar’s share of invoicing was 4.7 times larger than America’s share of the value of imports, and 3.1 times its share of world exports3. The U.S. dollar is the dominant “invoicing currency” in most developing countries4. https://preview.redd.it/d4xalwdyz8p51.png?width=535&format=png&auto=webp&s=9f0556c6aa6b29016c9b135f3279e8337dfee2a6 https://preview.redd.it/wucg40kzz8p51.png?width=653&format=png&auto=webp&s=71257fec29b43e0fc0df1bf04363717e3b52478f This U.S. dollar preference also directly impacts the world’s debt. According to the Bank of International Settlements, there is over $67 trillion in U.S. dollar denominated debt globally, and borrowing outside of the U.S. accounted for $12.5 trillion in Q1 20205. There is an immense demand for U.S. dollars every year just to service these dollar debts. The annual U.S. dollar buying demand is easily over $1 trillion assuming the borrowing cost is at 1.5% (1 year LIBOR + 1%) per year, a conservative estimate. https://preview.redd.it/6956j6f109p51.png?width=487&format=png&auto=webp&s=ccea257a4e9524c11df25737cac961308b542b69 Secondly, since the U.S. has a much stronger economy compared to its global peers, a higher return on investments draws U.S. dollar demand from everywhere in the world, to invest in companies both in the public and private markets. The U.S. hosts the largest stock markets in the world with more than $33 trillion in public market capitalization (combined both NYSE and NASDAQ)6. For the private market, North America’s total share is well over 60% of the $6.5 trillion global assets under management across private equity, real assets, and private debt investments7. The demand for higher quality investments extends to the fixed income market as well. As countries like Japan and Switzerland currently have negative-yielding interest rates8, fixed income investors’ quest for yield in the developed economies leads them back to the U.S. debt market. As of July 2020, there are $15 trillion worth of negative-yielding debt securities globally (see chart). In comparison, the positive, low-yielding U.S. debt remains a sound fixed income strategy for conservative investors in uncertain market conditions. Source: Bloomberg Last, but not least, there are many developing economies experiencing failing monetary policies, where hyperinflation has become a real national disaster. A classic example is Venezuela, where the currency Bolivar became practically worthless as the inflation rate skyrocketed to 10,000,000% in 20199. The recent Beirut port explosion in Lebanon caused a sudden economic meltdown and compounded its already troubled financial market, where inflation has soared to over 112% year on year10. For citizens living in unstable regions such as these, the only reliable store of value is the U.S. dollar. According to the Chainalysis 2020 Geography of Cryptocurrency Report, Venezuela has become one of the most active cryptocurrency trading countries11. The demand for cryptocurrency surges as a flight to safety mentality drives Venezuelans to acquire U.S. dollars to preserve savings that they might otherwise lose. The growth for cryptocurrency activities in those regions is fueled by these desperate citizens using cryptocurrencies as rails to access the U.S. dollar, on top of acquiring actual Bitcoin or other underlying crypto assets.
The Rise of Crypto Dollars
Due to the highly volatile nature of cryptocurrencies, USD stablecoin, a crypto-powered blockchain token that pegs its value to the U.S. dollar, was introduced to provide stable dollar exposure in the crypto trading sphere. Tether is the first of its kind. Issued in 2014 on the bitcoin blockchain (Omni layer protocol), under the token symbol USDT, it attempts to provide crypto traders with a stable settlement currency while they trade in and out of various crypto assets. The reason behind the stablecoin creation was to address the inefficient and burdensome aspects of having to move fiat U.S. dollars between the legacy banking system and crypto exchanges. Because one USDT is theoretically backed by one U.S. dollar, traders can use USDT to trade and settle to fiat dollars. It was not until 2017 that the majority of traders seemed to realize Tether’s intended utility and started using it widely. As of April 2019, USDT trading volume started exceeding the trading volume of bitcoina12, and it now dominates the crypto trading sphere with over $50 billion average daily trading volume13. https://preview.redd.it/3vq7v1jg09p51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=46f11b5f5245a8c335ccc60432873e9bad2eb1e1 An interesting aspect of USDT is that although the claimed 1:1 backing with U.S. dollar collateral is in question, and the Tether company is in reality running fractional reserves through a loose offshore corporate structure, Tether’s trading volume and adoption continues to grow rapidly14. Perhaps in comparison to fiat U.S. dollars, which is not really backed by anything, Tether still has cash equivalents in reserves and crypto traders favor its liquidity and convenience over its lack of legitimacy. For those who are concerned about Tether’s solvency, they can now purchase credit default swaps for downside protection15. On the other hand, USDC, the more compliant contender, takes a distant second spot with total coin circulation of $1.8 billion, versus USDT at $14.5 billion (at the time of publication). It is still too early to tell who is the ultimate leader in the stablecoin arena, as more and more stablecoins are launching to offer various functions and supporting mechanisms. There are three main categories of stablecoin: fiat-backed, crypto-collateralized, and non-collateralized algorithm based stablecoins. Most of these are still at an experimental phase, and readers can learn more about them here. With the continuous innovation of stablecoin development, the utility stablecoins provide in the overall crypto market will become more apparent.
In addition to trade settlement, stablecoins can be applied in many other areas. Cross-border payments and remittances is an inefficient market that desperately needs innovation. In 2020, the average cost of sending money across the world is around 7%16, and it takes days to settle. The World Bank aims to reduce remittance fees to 3% by 2030. With the implementation of blockchain technology, this cost could be further reduced close to zero. J.P. Morgan, the largest bank in the U.S., has created an Interbank Information Network (IIN) with 416 global Institutions to transform the speed of payment flows through its own JPM Coin, another type of crypto dollar17. Although people argue that JPM Coin is not considered a cryptocurrency as it cannot trade openly on a public blockchain, it is by far the largest scale experiment with all the institutional participants trading within the “permissioned” blockchain. It might be more accurate to refer to it as the use of distributed ledger technology (DLT) instead of “blockchain” in this context. Nevertheless, we should keep in mind that as J.P. Morgan currently moves $6 trillion U.S. dollars per day18, the scale of this experiment would create a considerable impact in the international payment and remittance market if it were successful. Potentially the day will come when regulated crypto exchanges become participants of IIN, and the link between public and private crypto assets can be instantly connected, unlocking greater possibilities in blockchain applications. Many central banks are also in talks about developing their own central bank digital currency (CBDC). Although this idea was not new, the discussion was brought to the forefront due to Facebook’s aggressive Libra project announcement in June 2019 and the public attention that followed. As of July 2020, at least 36 central banks have published some sort of CBDC framework. While each nation has a slightly different motivation behind its currency digitization initiative, ranging from payment safety, transaction efficiency, easy monetary implementation, or financial inclusion, these central banks are committed to deploying a new digital payment infrastructure. When it comes to the technical architectures, research from BIS indicates that most of the current proofs-of-concept tend to be based upon distributed ledger technology (permissioned blockchain)19. https://preview.redd.it/lgb1f2rw19p51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=040bb0deed0499df6bf08a072fd7c4a442a826a0 These institutional experiments are laying an essential foundation for an improved global payment infrastructure, where instant and frictionless cross-border settlements can take place with minimal costs. Of course, the interoperability of private DLT tokens and public blockchain stablecoins has yet to be explored, but the innovation with both public and private blockchain efforts could eventually merge. This was highlighted recently by the Governor of the Bank of England who stated that “stablecoins and CBDC could sit alongside each other20”. One thing for certain is that crypto dollars (or other fiat-linked digital currencies) are going to play a significant role in our future economy.
There is never a dull moment in the crypto sector. The industry narratives constantly shift as innovation continues to evolve. Twelve years since its inception, Bitcoin has evolved from an abstract subject to a familiar concept. Its role as a secured, scarce, decentralized digital store of value has continued to gain acceptance, and it is well on its way to becoming an investable asset class as a portfolio hedge against asset price inflation and fiat currency depreciation.Stablecoins have proven to be useful as proxy dollars in the crypto world, similar to how dollars are essential in the traditional world. It is only a matter of time before stablecoins or private digital tokens dominate the cross-border payments and global remittances industry. There are no shortages of hypes and experiments that draw new participants into the crypto space, such as smart contracts, new blockchains, ICOs, tokenization of things, or the most recent trends on DeFi tokens. These projects highlight the possibilities for a much more robust digital future, but the market also needs time to test and adopt. A reliable digital payment infrastructure must be built first in order to allow these experiments to flourish. In this paper we examined the historical background and economic reasons for the U.S. dollar’s dominance in the world, and the probable conclusion is that the demand for U.S. dollars will likely continue, especially in the middle of a global pandemic, accompanied by a worldwide economic slowdown. The current monetary system is far from perfect, but there are no better alternatives for replacement at least in the near term. Incremental improvements are being made in both the public and private sectors, and stablecoins have a definite role to play in both the traditional and the new crypto world. Thank you. Reference:  How the US dollar became the world’s reserve currency, Investopedia  The dollar is in high demand, prone to dangerous appreciation, The Economist  Dollar dominance in trade and finance, Gita Gopinath  Global trades dependence on dollars, The Economist & IMF working papers  Total credit to non-bank borrowers by currency of denomination, BIS  Biggest stock exchanges in the world, Business Insider  McKinsey Global Private Market Review 2020, McKinsey & Company  Central banks current interest rates, Global Rates  Venezuela hyperinflation hits 10 million percent, CNBC  Lebanon inflation crisis, Reuters  Venezuela cryptocurrency market, Chainalysis  The most used cryptocurrency isn’t Bitcoin, Bloomberg  Trading volume of all crypto assets, coinmarketcap.com  Tether US dollar peg is no longer credible, Forbes  New crypto derivatives let you bet on (or against) Tether’s solvency, Coindesk  Remittance Price Worldwide, The World Bank  Interbank Information Network, J.P. Morgan  Jamie Dimon interview, CBS News  Rise of the central bank digital currency, BIS  Speech by Andrew Bailey, 3 September 2020, Bank of England
Withdrawing USD Funds from Philippine-Based Paypal Account Using TransferWise Borderless Account
This is a response tou/sgicruz*'s post:* Best way to receive USD payment into a USD savings account?I created a post since this is a bit long comparison. If you are transferring large amounts of USD from Paypal (i.e. >USD 2,000 at a time), you are forced by Paypal to withdraw in PHP, since you cannot withdraw USD directly to Philippine-based USD accounts. Instead, you can use the TransferWise Borderless Account. The Borderless Account allows you to hold multiple currencies on the account, and also provides USD US Bank Account details (also GBP, Euro, AUD, NZD) which can receive funds via local ACH (automated clearing house). Paypal can withdraw USD funds via US ACH. (There is a verification step before being assigned bank account details: see footnote at the bottom of my post)* For comparison, below are three scenarios:
Total fees: PHP 200 (for USD 2,000 sample computation) (Note: if you use GCash, I think total fee is always PHP 0, subject to wallet and transaction limits) Exchange Rate (sample for May 8, 2020): 1 USD => PHP 48.9414 Net PHP received thru bank: PHP 97,682.70 (BDO) or PHP 97,882.70 (GCash) Paypal's PHP-USD buy/sell spread is horrendous at around ~3.0-3.5% compared to the mid-market rate. But this is still a valid option if (1) you are withdrawing small amounts, or (2) you need instant access to cash. --------------------------- 2. Paypal -> (Withdraw to US Bank Account) -> TransferWise Borderless Account -> (Send USD via SWIFT) -> BDO USD Savings Account Associated fees (sample computation for USD 2,000):
Paypal withdrawal from USD balance to US Bank Account = USD 35.00 (flat fee)
TransferWise fee for USD transfer over SWIFT = USD 1.40+3.20 = USD 4.60 (flat fee)
SWIFT intermediary/correspondent bank fees = USD 15.00 (flat fee, but can vary from 0-60 USD depending on route taken and on int'l bank relationships your local USD bank has)
BDO Incoming SWIFT Remittance = USD 5.00 (flat fee)
Total fees: 59.60 USD Net USD received thru bank: USD 1940.40 If your ultimate goal is to get the funds in PHP, we can try exchanging the USD to PHP via BDO Exchange Rate (sample for May 8, 2020): 1 USD => PHP 50.0000 (BDO USD Buy rates) Net PHP received thru bank: PHP 97,020.00 There are a lot of fixed fees, so this will only be economical for large amounts of USD (probably >USD 3,000). In addition, BDO's PHP-USD buy/sell spread is around ~0.5-1.0% compared to the mid-market rate. Paypal withdrawal to US bank account takes around 1-2 banking days, while SWIFT transfers take around 1-5 banking days. --------------------------- An alternative is to send PHP directly from TransferWise. This is cheaper than Paypal or even the USD route described above. This is because TransferWise's exchange rate uses the mid-market rate, and they have transparent fees. In addition, TransferWise -> Local PHP Savings Account settles in minutes, as opposed to the SWIFT USD transfer above (which can take anywhere from 2-5 banking days). 3. Paypal -> (Withdraw to US Bank Account) -> TransferWise Borderless Account -> (Send PHP via ACH [this means Bancnet]) -> Local PHP Savings Account Associated fees (sample computation for USD 2,000):
Paypal withdrawal from USD balance to TransferWise US Bank Account = USD 35 (flat fee)
TransferWise fee for PHP transfer over ACH (Bancnet) = USD 12.01
Total fees: USD 47.01 Net USD for conversion: USD 1952.99 Exchange Rate (sample for May 8, 2020): 1 USD => 50.4800 PHP Net PHP received thru bank: PHP 98,586.93 Paypal withdrawal to US bank account takes around 1-2 banking days, while TransferWise USD-PHP ACH (Bancnet) settles in minutes. --------------------------- *To receive your own USD bank account details, you're required to "Add Money" at least GBP 20 or its equivalent (maybe USD 25). This is their verification requirement. I recommend adding money using Visa/Mastercard Debit Card: TransferWise has around 4.5% fees for the Debit Card Add Money option, so it's going to cost around ~PHP 60 in fees. I recommend using CIMB ATM card if you have, since they currently (as of May 8, 2020) do not charge forex conversion fees. If not, any Visa/Mastercard debit card will do (including BDO Visa ATM cards). --------------------------- TLDR; For relatively small amounts, withdraw directly from Paypal to PHP bank account. Best choice is Paypal -> GCash (no inward remittance fee). For larger amounts, withdraw USD from Paypal to TransferWise Borderless Account, then send PHP via ACH (Bancnet) to Philippine PHP Savings account. But if you want to keep the amount as USD: withdraw USD from Paypal to TransferWise Borderless Account, then send USD via SWIFT to Philippine USD Savings account.
Global agent recruitment NEEBank — the digital bank
During its process of NEEBank’s official launch at the end of 2020 (in Dubai) and its official operation at the beginning of 2021, NEEBankis proud to announce its global agent recruitment NEEBank. NEEBank is a digital bank based in Dubai (the UAE), India and Singapore. It’s the first digital bank to operate all of its services online all over the world. Thanks to Blockchain application, NEEBank can get through all boundaries of borders, currency differences, communities, and the environment. The bank also works 24/7 free of charge (no registration fee, no account maintenance fee, no forex fee, etc..). Beside FREE services, NEEBank has many other competitive features such as high saving interest, appealing lending interest, NEECREDIT service — a smart feature to automatically evaluate a person’s credit by AI, using IoT and Blockchain. Together with its key field (Finance — Investment), International Money Transfer — Remittance Services are also seen as NEEBank’s strength. These services are convenient, simple and user-friendly and can be used globally. NEEBank offers this chance to all partners — individuals, organizations, business people — from all over the world to join us to enjoy wonderful benefits and advantages. Global agent recruitment NEEBank THE BENEFITS FOR NEEBANK’S AGENTS (NEEBankers) TASKS:
Search for and assist clients to open their bank accounts (IDBANK)
Perform exchange services (NEE Exchange)
Perform international money transfer — remittance services (NEEX)
Top-Up — allowing clients to deposit and withdraw money (ATM)
Perform other services: lending, saving, issuing cards, insurance, credit, bill payment, etc…
BENEFITS — ADVANTAGES
Get NEE rewards when a client opens a free account (with a Referral Link)
The world has become more connected; more people or corporates need to send money abroad for many reasons. If you live and working away from the home, time will definitely come when you have to make transfer to abroad to support your loved ones and other reasons. Outward Remittance is basically the same as an international money transfer. Many of the sender /customers live overseas and send their hard money to support their loved ones. For example, Parents do a wire transfer to University or their son/daughter’s account for the purpose of their education. To help them, please visit your nearest branch of Orient exchange or go to the website www.orientexchange.in Some of the tips to be followed for good convenience: The right place to Approach · Telegraphic transfers or process of sending money are made through ADII RBI license holders or banks or money changers. · Customers should remember that you just can not trust any individuals with the responsibility of sending money. · Experts recommend choosing a better exchange house /bank that has the international footprint which makes your money transfer easier and secure. Mode of transfer You need to choose the option to send money. One is Wire transfer and another is Demand draft. Wire transfer is done via SWIFT i.e. Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications. A swift transfer is the most secure and standard system which can be done by banks to their correspondents with each other. A demand draft can be sent abroad physically and takes a little bit of time to get cleared. In most of the time remittance will be received by the beneficiary bank in 48 hrs. Process of application Primarily, the customer has to send their documents /upload either online or visit the office or request for home verification of KYC and other relevant documents. The requirement of documents may slightly vary with the purpose behind sending the money. There is a limit set by RBI to individuals who remitting money abroad. RBI has placed an annual cap of $ 250000 to the individuals · Rate fixing: Customer can book their forex rate by paying 2% of the transaction value or they may pay after verification of documents. · Fees/charges: Many banks are involved in a single outward remittance through the SWIFT network. The customer is liable to pay extra fees. Two to three intermediary banks may handle the transfers so they can add their own charges. In addition to that own bank & receipt bank charges are also included in what you pay. Duration: Remitter to receiver ‘s account A swift transfer is transferring money between multiple banks before the funds credited to the seller’s /beneficiary account. This process will be completed from 1 to 5 working days depending on the countries where you transfer. What details are must for outward remittance transfer? *Beneficiary Details : Name of the beneficiary & Address of the Beneficiary *Payee Bank details : 1) SWIFT CODE: Swift code is known as Bank ID /SWIFT CODE/Identifier code. Each financial institution is having its own unique swift code. Swift code usually has 8 to 11 digit or characters. For Ex: BANK OF AMERICA transfer, SWIFT CODE is “ BOFAUS3N” 2) Beneficiary bank name 3) Beneficiary Bank Address and branch name 4) Beneficiary Bank Account Number 5) Currency wise bank details are additionally required: i) AED – IBAN ii) GBP – IBAN, Sort Code iii) CAD – Transit Number iv) AUD – BSB Code v) EUNZD/THB/SEK/SGD – IBAN Attention on the exchange rate: Customers always think about the best way to send Wire transfer at a cheap cost. In the current market scenario, customers should know that most of the banks or money exchangers don’t use the real exchange rate. Instead of that, add more margin on top of live rates. So, customers pay more or beneficiary to receive less. To avoid these hidden charges try using online services that provide you the live /real exchange rates on all wire transfers, Currency Exchange, forex card etc….
Volatility is a very big problem for a currency. For something to be a currency it needs to be stable because it has to act as coordinate system for other items which are priced against. That can not be achieved without active policy to keep the currency value stable. All crypto currencies have this problem just because nobody make active policy to achieve stability and also because they are not gold this is very new tech and is hard to predict a value. Stable coins solve that problem but then become trusted dependent on audit mechanisms. So that is not great but still usdt which was the first stable coin is the most used coin with astonishing circulation in relation with relative small market cap. Somebody had the natural idea to couple stable coin backed by usd with nano. That should make a great currency like a dollar on steroids. The idea is to break loose from the exchanges and achieve real world usage. But sadly he failed. There are many reasons i think the most important is that the team was german but because of negative interest rates of euro they choose to start with the dollar. Another wrong bet was they imagine they could compete in exchanges with much stronger players like usdt, paxos, tusd etc. So now they used all the venture capital they had to run the operation. Essentially they runed out of steam before reaching a niche. Another very intresting thing i learned is the cost to run a fully audited system based on nano 1500$: 500$ primetrust 300$ accounting / entity 200 $ server cost 500 $ Dev maintenance cost (network / wallets / bots / etc) More than half is compliace costs 800$. The infrastructuse with the whole pack wallets bots browser costs 700$. Probably this is a moderatly optimistic estimate. But this is equivalent with a low cost bank which assure free transactions and can be easily integrated as extern mobile money ecosystem by any bank to compete against telecom. For me the death of the nollar is a sad day which close a great path nano teach had to show the possibilities the tech have. Now if someone has the interest and the knowledge of central/latin america mobile money and remittances market sure can turn around the this project. The project is now up for grab for free. Probably other niches can be thought like micropayments, buying and selling small value items or powering a freelance market with much lower fees than pay pal. Even forex services if the system is developed to multicurrency. All of this applications need multiple gateways which lack now. The only gate way they build is in us. And yes building links with the old banking system in several jurisdiction is the problem they did not manage to solve and the biggest reason the system was basically unusable. Who ever want nollar is his.
How do I escalate a complaint with higher authoritiesi n SBI?
An international wire transfer payment was sent to my SBI savings account on dec-2016.Almost 3 years have passed,still the amount is not credited to my account. Regarding this matter,i visited my home branch and had shown the payment information ( UTR no ) etc , but they advised me to contact the SBI remittance department . Since then i have sent multiple emails to the forex dept of SBI ,my home branch, but didn't get any positive response .Even though when they gave response it was a generic response. I have registered multiple complaints in their cms portal. most of the times they gave me a ticket which is nontrackable in the portal. I registered a new complaint yesterday and to my utter surprise today when i checked the status it is showing me atm related complain. But yesterday it was showing the right complaint type -inward remittance not credited .Anyway i'm really frustrated with SBI and their customer service. how can i raise a complaint to their high authority? There customer care is uselsess .When i have contacted them today and asked why did they change my complain type they gave reply -"you must have complained about atm card ,otherwise why it is showing as atm card related complain ?" I said "i'm asking the same question why it is showing different complain. I didn't complain about atm card .close this complain ". She said -"We can not close any complain " .. Seriously !! what is this ..!Can anyone enlighten me the path to raise a complain to their higher authority so that my grievance gets addressed and i get the money credited to my account which has been stuck in their system for a long time . I would really appreciate any help. Thank you
The real reasons why Kerala can't even think of seceding from the union
There is so much of chest beating on how Kerala should secede and how it pays on outsize share of tax money that a counter was mandated. becomes independent. It needs to pay for things like border security and a full fledged military. That aside it will have to import key raw materials like coal and food materials, and without a central govt subsidising this, best of luck trying to buy it at international commodity market prices. In addition to this, things that come under the center now, like railways the national power grid, National highway maintenance all will come under the state. The bankrupt state of Kerala will become an economic basket case. Just imagine Kerala outside the union and getting hit with a monsoon season like this...ggwp. Without the centre they will literally drown to their deaths. This whole idea is stupidly retarded. Furthermore on the whole "le epic HDI" argument, It has the highest unemployment rate of all major states. Kerala's unemployment rate is 4x the national rate. It has next to no manufacturing. It receives in HDI in 15 years that Chennai and Bangalore (not even the entire state) does in less than a year. It is quite literally bankrupt. Read this. Commercial taxes have actually taken a nose dive after 2012 which indicates declining economic activity. It has next to no IT services. Broadly speaking, it's exports total something like $ 2bn annually, and this is mostly Agri commodities, chemicals / rare Earth minerals. Throw in shipbuilding in case it becomes independent and it will still barely make any forex outside of remittances Why despite having the first IT sez in the country do they export a fraction of what Delhi, Mumbai, Hyd, Bangalore and Chennai export? Why despite all that literacy have the consistently voted absolutely shit governments that have driven the state finances into the ground? This Kerala is some superior state myth needs to die, that's the only way it stands a chance of progressing. The major edge it had was that it's state literacy rate was 30% when the national average was 12%. That allowed it to export labour and basic white collar jobs to the gulf which coincidentally saw the oil boom and needed said labour and white collar jobs. As a state it has literally nothing going for it as of now. Even look at the much vaunted HDI data and you will see stagnation as other states rapidly catch up. In 1980, India had an average score of 0.32 on the index (which falls in the low HDI score) with some states like Bihar or UP falling in the sub 0.25 mark which is the lowest possible score. States like Maha and TN also fell in the low HDI region with scores sub 0.300. Kerala was at the 0.55 score which was in the medium HDI category. The differential was almost 43% between the national avg and Kerala. Similar difference between TN / Maha and Kerala. In 2007-2008, national avg was at 0.513, Kerala at 0.79. Differential being 36%. Maha and TN at 0.57 and the difference here was down to 28%. In 2015, Kerala was at 0.71, National avg at 0.60. Differential being 16% or 1/3rd what it was in 1980. Maha & TN at 0.66 so the difference here being 8%. Even the much reviled (by mellus) Gujarat was at 0.52 in 2008 (differential at 35%) vs in 2015 where the Differential is 15% At this rate, industrialised states like Maha, TN & Guj will have better HDI than Kerala within this decade. Not just that but a whole host of states like Haryana, HP, Karnataka all will either catch up or leave behind Kerala in the HDI stakes within this decade. Even the "BIMARU" states are slowly catching up. The Differential between MP and Kerala in 1990 was something like 70%, in 2005 this was at 55% and in 2015 this is at 33%. . Why is the rest of India (for the most part) progressing while Kerala is stagnant? Because these states have increasing revenue profiles which means more to spend on the social sector while the gulf remmitances haven't really kept up and are predicted to actually drop, and they even actually dropped a full 11% between 2014 and 16 and is only now inching towards 2013-14 levels. With immigration dropping and the gulf economies slowing down this problem is not going to go away anytime soon. I think I have made my case pretty black and white. Unless Kerala gets it's act together, it's only going to get worse while India overall moves ahead. Whining about "muh beef Aryan Invasion HDI" is not going to be able to sustain it's economy. Lol, this is a state that imports 70% of it's power from outside the state and whose SEB was (till project UDAY) so bankrupt that it couldn't even pay it's employees and they want to secede? Best of luck with that noise. No power, no jobs, increased spending on defense, everything from coal to refined oil will need to be imported, with no matching exports would mean a ruinous trade deficit
Send Money To Canada At Best Canadian Dollar Rates On BookMyForex
Are you looking for a good forex company or a bank for money transfer to Canada from India? Sending money from India to Canada is easy and simple with BookMyForex and you can check the live Canadian dollar rate on BookMyForex by just doing it all online from the comforts of your home. Sending money to another Country basically overseas or Abroad is called remittance and Remittance can be counted as two types. Outward Remittance: When You Send Money From India to A Foreign Country Inward Remittance: When You Send Money To India from a Foreign Country Methods of Sending Money To Canada: You can send money to Canada from India through following two methods: Wire Transfer: Wire transfers are direct bank to bank transfers where money from an Indian bank account is directly transferred to your beneficiary's bank account abroad. Popular opinion is that Wire transfers from India are the best and most convenient way to transfer money abroad -Money exchangers: They are fast but very expensive and not entirely reliable or secure. You don't need an account but the process is time-consuming and you need proof of residence and identity to send money from India. Money changers may want you to register and verify the recipient or the beneficiary. This is to protect the security of your fund, to prevent fraud, and to make future remittances more streamlined. -Online Forex Companies like BookMyForex- It provides you Fast, safe, reliable, and secure. Zero charges, no hidden costs, and better rates than anyone else. There are several aspects in which BookMyForex far outweighs other money changers and banks when you need to send money from India to Canada or any other country. We will tell you how... Company Like BookMyForex Vs Banks The exchange rates offered by banks are up to 5% higher than those as compared by BookMyForex. Also, banks follow the practice of offering one card rates or daily rates that work out to far more expensive than live and real-time rates offered by BookMyForex (the first and only currency exchange in India to do so) for money transfer to Canada from India. On the other hand, since BookMyForex is an online platform for forex transactions, you can book your order online anytime and from anywhere as per your convenience. You get guaranteed best rates when you send money to Canada from India. Online Exchangers VS Offline Exchangers Many forex players are not sure about the documentation required for money remittance and can make you go back and forth unnecessarily, which can be quite a pain! Just like banks, other currency exchangers also operate at 'daily rates' which are not comparable to the live rates offered by BookMyForex for money transfer to Canada from India. Some local money changers offer very lucrative exchange rates provided you don't take a bill for your transaction to send money from India to Canada. Doing so means buying currency from the black market, and if caught, both, the dealer and the customer, are punishable by law and can land you behind bars. Would you really want to take that risk? Being an online Company, BookMyForex provides customers the convenience of ordering online and the guaranteed best rates to send money from India to Canada because there are no infrastructure costs involved. Now, get the currency Exchange services from cities like Mohali, Patiala, Dehradun and other big cities like Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai
Listing on Coinbase (Forkbase), retail market driven
SEC declaration of its legal status (investor certainty signal) retail and institutional speculative drive
Production deployment of XRapid (institutional utility drive) (banks, remittance providers, payment apps like alipay,.etc.)
Announcement by central banks of backing of stable coin on XRP ledger (FOMO by entire planet)
XRP ETF (institutional speculative)
XRP used by SBI Holdings for FOREX settlement (institutional utility)
Announcement by major institution (Fidelity, Black rock, etc.) of institutional Custodianship for digital assets (including XRP) (institutional and retail speculative)
CODIUS deployment commits on Github rising exponentially when developers realize the coding is agnostic, settlement time and transaction fees are virtually nonexistent (development utility for institutional and retail use cases)
Ripple announces production level product for derivatives trading and settlement using CODIUS smart contracts and XRP ledger (institutional utility)
BTC bull run with trickle down crypto economics
Use by the Arabian Peninsula for oil contract settlements
Any single one is equivalent to trillion dollar markets at full utility. I think Ripple is working on ALL of these! People, step back and stop looking at bullshit manipulated crypto charts, the stars are aligning. Buy as much as you possibly can, sell blood. Get ready and start worrying about how you're going to hide all your money.
KAPA-Community Ministry International Inc. is not the only entity that the investing public needs to watch out for. According to an advisory issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), there are various unregistered investment entities that entice the public to invest their money in high-earning products. Many of them are reaching out to prospective investors through social media. “Investors are increasingly turning to social media, including Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, LinkedIn and other online networks for information about investing,” SEC warned in an advisory issued on May 31, 2019. It noted that investment companies have begun soliciting investments through social media and warned the public to be on guard. The SEC identified the companies MGA Business Enterprises, Coophub Multimedia Services, Jogle Innovative Marketing, Global Dream Zion, Grappler, Sherpan, BCT Marketing/BCT Motorcycle and Car Trading, RTM/RTM Pharmacy and General Merchandise, Diamond Marketing, Fusion Marketing, FMarket, Cirfund, Vibearn, Onepro, BCC/BCC Cosmetics Trading, Unlishop Compensation Plan Marketing, VUCC, Bitrain, Tcoin, Crowd Royals, ADA Farm Agri Venture and Nermie Marketing/Nermie Health and Beauty Products Trading as those soliciting investments through social media. The SEC noted that the entities mentioned offer investment contracts in Facebook pages or secret Facebook groups and chatrooms. They also reportedly offer “unrealistic return on investments,” ranging from 10 percent to 400 percent a month and require interested investors to pay initial investments by depositing their money to an account in a bank, Coins.ph, GCash, money remittance company or face-to-payment with an entity’s agent. Investors are then instructed to send through private message copies of proof of their deposits. Payouts are also made using the same methods. Subject to SEC regulation “They usually claim that they invest their funds in forex (foreign exchange), bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to justify their earning capacity,” the SEC said. The Commission added that such investment schemes “collapse as fast as they are created,” leaving investors unable to recoup their investments. The SEC wants it known that such schemes, whether using money or cryptocurrency, are considered securities and subject to regulatory authority of SEC. It added that the recruitment of investor members “in the guise of sponsoring a person into the system” is also considered a form of investment solicitation or a sale of securities. The sale of securities to the public without a permit or license from the SEC is a violation of the Securities Regulation Code. To spot such investment scams, the SEC lists three common red flags to look out for. If it sounds too good to be true, the SEC warns that it probably is. It cautioned investors to be wary of claims of “incredible gains” or “huge upside and almost no risk” investments. The SEC also noted that such scams promise guaranteed returns. It warned that every investment entails some level of risk and that an investment that is 100 percent safe likely has low returns. “Most fraudsters spend a lot of time trying to convince investors that extremely high returns are guaranteed or that the investment is a can’t-miss opportunity,” the SEC said. Another red flag is the pressure to buy right away. The SEC encourages investors to think before investing and be skeptical of investments that are pitched as once-in-a-lifetime opportunities. The SEC encourages the public to consult its Enforcement and Investor Protection Department if they think they are being duped into an investment scam. https://www.sunstar.com.ph/article/1808635
Do any of you foresee a crypto being widely adopted as a general purpose payment coin? nano, btc, btccash etc (take your pick). I think it won't happen for reasons in this post. What do you think?
i posted this in cryptotech, and the responses i got, no one could refute my points. interested to see what ppl here come up with. What do you all think of payment coins in general as being adopted for the purpose of general payment, not a replacement for fiat, complementary as fiat going away isn't going to happen e.g. you are forced to pay your taxes in fiat. I've got a list of points as to why a payment crypto being wide adopted for payment wont happen. pick your coin of choice (btc, nano, btccash, etc), it wont happen for the following reasons:
cryptos are volatile in value relative to your fiat. if you intended to use it as general payment e.g. buying coffee or a laptop online. the fluctuations in value especially crashes really suck, especially if you have large sums of money there. oh i cant buy that laptop now because my crypto has fallen by 30%. Satoshi said that volatitily would stabalise over time with btc, but i disagree with this, just my opinion.
you have no charge backs like with a credit card or pay pal if the merchant does something wrong. so why would i use a payment coin that has no chargebacks if there is no cost advantage? the visa fee is something like 2-3% more if its forex. however the merchant eats the fee. even if the merchant offered a discount for using crypto to buy something, point 1 is still a huge issue, and the savings the merchant would offer probably would not be enough incentive e.g. 2-3% in most cases.
with cryptos, you need to be your own bank, securing cryptos isn't hard, but not user friendly to people who are not tech literate, however big strides have been made there with easy to use wallets. However there is still the potential for phishing, losing keys etc. VISA card, no problem, call up the bank, cancel the card get a new one. The bank will refund any money spent by someone who stole you card, at least here in Australia.
most payment coins are not not fungible e.g. btc except monero, this means that the btc you used can be traced back to some nefarious activity, a drug deal etc. this could land you in hot water, but not likely. however it would give pause for adoption by merchants. e.g. people could be laundering btc through them to say buy macbook pros and sell them on ebay. I also suggest you read up on what fungibility means before responding...
in the case of btc and public block chains as soon you spend BTC, people know your wallet address, they now know your balance. even if you try to hide your balance with multiple wallets and transfers, block chain analysis will find where the jackpot is. if they are motivated to do so, perhaps they know you might have a lot of btc for example. coin mixers no longer work. this is a huge problem. monero does not have this problem however as do some of the other private payment coins.
in the case of btc, it has slow confirmation times and expensive transaction fees, though this could be fixed with LN. other payment coins like nano do not have this problem, thought i would still add this as a point. i guess this is not really a point to stop adoption. but i added it here as people generally only know about btc.
we can see in the case of BTC, it was never really adopted for general payment. most use it as an investment, to buy alts, or people who choose to use it as payment over fiat if its avaialbe, id classify these people as being enthusiastic about using crypto, but you can see in the case of BTC, over the years, most people didnt use it for this purpose. btc was used in darknets however. this is why i invested in monero as i saw the flaws in btc (lack of annonymity, and fungibility) and figured darknets would eventually adopt monero in the long term.
a problem with payment coins is that they are also deflationary as they have a fixed supply. libetarians love the idea of hard money that can not be printed, but i think most have not studied up on modern economics Keynesian principles are the dominant thinking. you also have the austrian school that stipulates that gold or a fixed supply asset tied to money is better, i dont really agree but they do bring up some good points in some respects with smoothing the economic boom / busts, but i wasnt sold. you may disagree, but deflation in a payment crypto is bad, it encourages hording as the value will go up as more people are chasing less btc as an example. Ideally, you want moderate inflation as it would actually encourage people to spend or invest as holding onto the crypto would see a steady loss of 2-3% a year. perhaps the volatility however would be less with inflationary coins. This was actually a problem with the gold standard and why they abondoned it. this is a controversioal topic. as many people resort to conspiracy theories or believe that governments are stealing money via inflation through seigniorage i..e they print it first so they get the most value before it gets further inflated. this is not how the money system works in modern economies. it is however applicable to countries who print money to fund their government, which often leads to hyperinflation, its quite rare for countries to do this in this day and age. it is an issue in some countries with very high inflation that do just this.
ive mentioned monero. (not trying to shill here, insert other private payment coin here) it has the flaws of point 1 which is huge, so wont be adopted widely for general payment. however its fungible, people cant look up how much you own. transactions are anonymous. so even with the problem with point 1. privacy even at a cost has value and good use cases. hiding money from the govt, transfering it overseas. nefarious activities, e.g. buying drugs online. but those are niche use cases. so i dont ever see monero or another private coin being adopted for general payment either. if a payment coin can some how exist in the future where it resolves the points i mentioned e.g. holding its value to fiat, then id be interested. however maintaining the value of a crypto relative to fiat would require financial instruments like hedging which would increase the cost of using the crypto for payment thus potentially making it moot for general payment for any cost advantage. the charge back problem could be solved by say a company providing an equivalent type of crypto credit card without credit (or with credit), but this would incur cost of using the crypto, banks make this money back with interest, which is very high, credit cards its 25% or so in Australia. So given all these points, and the above paragraph where i see the only feasible way a general payment coin can exist (which would render using crypto in the first place pointless). do you agree? or think that its possible for the wide adoption of a crypto for general payment? Also i realise there is more to crypto than payment which this is not what this post is about, its strictly about using crypto for general payment. i find payment coins the least promising out of them. dApps and remittance focused coins for sure. other platform based ones like oyster and icon. right now i own xrp, xlm, xmr, ada, eth, prl, icx, prl, neo, iota (payment yeah, but has data storage and the tnagle thus is useful in other protoocls like oyster prl).
Exchanging Malaysian ringgit to INR - The Deets you must know!
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Thanks to all who gave me such wonderful appreciation and to the mods who gave me platinum, I don't deserve your praise, I just love our country. I want it to succeed. Now let's get riiiiiiiiigt into the neeeeeeewwws. -PM Khan makes it to Foreign Policy magazine's 2019 Global Thinkers list Prime Minister Imran Khan has been named among Foreign Policy magazine's 2019 list of 'Global Thinkers'. The short writeup on the premier states that Khan, "a former cricket star, finally got the job he had long coveted ─ prime minister"."His reward was an incredibly difficult to-do list, starting with Pakistan's looming fiscal and debt crises," it added. Prime Minister Khan shares the spotlight with other world leaders including German Chancellor Angela Merkel, former US president Barack Obama and his wife Michelle, New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern, and US lawmaker Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez. -Atletico shoot for football future in Pakistan Spain´s Atletico Madrid are taking on a challenge tougher than winning La Liga — developing football in cricket-mad Pakistan, where bat and ball are king, pitches come with stumps not goalposts, and even the prime minister is a former World Cup winner. During a recent session at the club´s new facility in Lahore — the country´s first European football academy — a cabal of Spanish coaches watched as a new class of young Pakistani hopefuls fired off penalty kicks. -National Job Programme to be launched for providing jobs to youth The National Job Programme will be launched under the Prime Minister’s Youth Programme for providing job opportunities to the educated youth. In this connection Special Assistant to Prime Minister on Youth Affairs Muhammad Usman Dar held a meeting with Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit in Islamabad on Monday to explore avenues of collaboration for the development of an effective National Job Programme. The special assistant to the prime minister appreciated GIZ for its role in the development of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) sector in Pakistan. He expressed hope to leverage their expertise in the field for creating better employment opportunities for the youth. The National Job Programme would include vocational training of youth in best Technical and Vocational Training Institutes and their placements in relevant industries to spur national economic growth. -You Can Even Sleep in This New Luxury Bus Service from Karachi to Quetta The 9-hour journey between Karachi and Quetta has now been made easier thanks to a newly launched luxury service. ‘Super International’ is aiming to make the experience of traveling on a bus as comfortable as possible. For that, apart from the usual amenities, it offers an onboard sleeping facility. Hence, the company’s slogan ‘Sleep Well, Live Well.” According to details, the bus will depart from Sadar area of Karachi on alternate days throughout the week. The ticket price is still to be confirmed but it will be around Rs. 3,000 per person. -KSE 100 picks 237 points on foreign inflow news The benchmark KSE 100 index of Pakistan Stock Exchange surged by 237.27 points or (+0.60%) closed at 39,543 on Monday. Analysts at Arif Habib Limited said that the Market moved upwards on the back of positive news flow on financial support from friendly countries in Gulf, as well as anticipation of China’s support in the offing. Higher international crude prices helped E&P sector to perform better, with OGDC and PPL scoring 4M and 3.1M shares respectively. Besides, expectation of improvement in Core Delta for EPCL, helped stock reach new highs and last half hour’s trading pulled the price back above 41. -Federal government released Rs 233 billion under PSDP The federal government has released Rs233.4 billion against the total allocation of Rs675 billion under its Public Sector Development Programme (PSDP) 2018-19 for various ongoing and new schemes. The released funds include Rs86.5 billion for federal ministries, Rs111 billion for corporations, and Rs25.6 billion for special areas, according to a data released by Ministry of Planning, Development and Reform on Monday. Out of these allocations, the government released Rs101.46 billion for National Highway Authority out of total allocation of Rs185.2 billion, whereas Rs9.6 billion have been released for NTDC and PEPCO for which an amount of Rs33.36 billion was allocated under PSDP 2018-19. Similarly, Rs4.6 billion have been released for Communication Division (other than National Highway Authority) for which the government has earmarked Rs13.97 billion under PSDP 2018-19. Railways Division received Rs8.07 billion out of its total allocation of Rs28.06 billion whereas Aviation Division received Rs443.5 million out of total allocation of Rs3.65 billion. The government also released an amount of Rs11.8 billion for various development projects of Higher Education Commission out of total allocation of Rs30.9 billion. The government also released Rs2.2 billion for National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination Division, for which an amount of Rs10.9 billion have been allocated. An amount of Rs1.44 billion has been released for Finance Division out of its total allocations of Rs12.34 billion and Rs540.68 million have been released for Climate Change Division out of its total allocations of Rs802.7 million for the current year, Rs20.3 million for Human Rights Division, and Rs408.5 million for National Food Security and Research Division. -Discussions Continue on Economic Bailout Package for Pakistan: IMF International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Pakistan are continuing discussions for a bailout package. Fitch Solutions stated in its latest report that the latest round of Chinese largesse has given Islamabad the confidence to snub the IMF’s more stringent requirements for obtaining funds. However, should Pakistan experience acute signs of a currency crisis over the coming months, we would not be surprised to see talks between Pakistan and the IMF resume, it added. -PM Imran Khan holds important meeting with Qatari PM, followed by official dinner Prime Minister Imran Khan met Prime Minister of Qatar Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al Thani at his residence in Doha on Monday. Bilateral relations, with a focus on economic cooperation between the two countries, were discussed during the meeting. The Qatari Prime Minister also hosted a dinner in the honour of Prime Minister and his delegation. -USD likely to trade in Rs138 and 139 range, positive news expected from Qatar: Malik Bostan President Forex Association of Pakistan (FAP), Malik Bostan Khan has said that at positive news is expected from the Prime Minister Imran Khan’s visit of Qatar, adding that if Pakistan is able to get deferred payment facility on imported gas from Qatar, the country will sail out of economic crisis in three years. He said Pakistan’s delegation visiting Qatar would also discuss human resource and security exports to Qatar, which will give a boost to remittances. -Over 3.9 crore children under age of five to undergo polio immunization across Pakistan The first nationwide polio vaccination campaign of 2019 started across the country on Monday to immunize over 39 million children despite harsh cold weather with continuous rainfall and snowfall on hilly areas. According to an official of National Emergency Operations Centre (EOC), as many as 260,000 front line workers started going door to door across all provinces and towns to ensure more than 39 million children under the age of five receive two drops of the vaccine to protect them against the polio virus. -Pakistan sees increase in IT exports, government targets $7 billion The Information Technology (IT) and Telecommunication industry of the country has contributed US $ 540 million foreign exchange to national kitty through exports during first two quarters of this fiscal year 2018-2019. The telecommunication, computer and information services managed to export IT and IT-enabled services worth US $ 540 million, seeing an increase of US $ 20 million as compared to exports figures of same period last year, statistics of State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) revealed. It is pertinent to mention here that Pakistan's IT industry achieved a benchmark of US $ 1.065 billion of exports in last financial year 2017-18. Federal Minister for Information Technology and Telecommunication Dr Khalid Maqbool Siddiqui Monday said that IT sector would bring a change in the country in future, so it is need of the hour time to digitalize the country. Talking to the media persons during his visit to the Virtual University (VU) here, he said that Pakistan was earning one billion dollars per annum through software development and its volume could be increased up to seven billion dollars per annum in the next five years Similarly: IT exports fetch $540m in six months According to Pakistan Software Export Board (PSEB), Pakistan’s IT & ITES-BPO industry comprises more than 2,500 companies, and this number is growing each year. The industry employs over 300,000 English-speaking professionals with many world-class experts in current and emerging IT products and technologies. -UNGA president acknowledges Pakistan's peace-keeping history President of the United Nations General Assembly(UNGA), Ms Maria Fernanda Espinosa Monday acknowledged Pakistan’s meritorious contributions to the United Nation peacekeeping missions and termed it one of the largest countries to have contributed to bringing peace in areas marred by insecurity and unrest. Ms Fernanda stated this while interacting with faculty members and students of National University of Science and Technology (NUST) during her visit to the university. Ms Fernanda, accompanied by Ms Maleeha Lodhi, Permanent Representative of Pakistan to the UN, paid a visit to Centre for International Peace and Stability (CIPS) at NUST. Lt Gen Naweed Zaman, HI (M), (Retd), Rector NUST, along with NUST senior management and faculty received the esteemed guests upon arrival at the main campus. She also lauded NUST for providing peacekeeping training both to local and foreign troops. -More than 40 World Nations to participate in Pakistan Navy International Exercise Pakistan Navy will host AMAN 19 exercise in February this year under the slogan of 'Together for Peace'. According to Pakistan Navy , more than forty countries will participate in the exercise. It is aimed at fostering maritime cooperation, promoting safe and security maritime environment for regional and global stability and for preserving oceans which is the common heritage of mankind. -Gwadar to be made a modern port city The Federal Minister for Planning, Development and Reform Makhdum Khusro Bakhtyar chaired a meeting to review progress on Gwadar City Master Plan project here on Monday. The meeting was attended by Federal Minister for Maritime Affairs Syed Ali Haider Zaidi, Commander Southern Command, Gen. Asim Saleem Bajwa, Balochistan Provincial Minister for Information Zahoor Ahmed Buledi, Secretary Planning Zafar Hasan and other officials, said in statement issued by Ministry for Planning, Development and Reform. Director General Gwadar Development Authority, Dr. Sajjad Hussain and Project Director China Pakistan Economic Corridor Hasaan Duad briefed the participants regarding the master plan. It was agreed to develop Gwadar as a modern smart port city, keeping in view the international standards being followed across the globe. -Top Pakistani company announces completion of mega construction project in Iraq Attock Cement on Monday announced it had finished civil, mechanical and electrical work on its Iraq project and the cement grinding unit was at commissioning stage. In a notification sent to the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX), Attock Cement said it was in the process of obtaining permission for the import of clinker. It added once it got the approval, the company would start the process of import of clinker and thereafter commence trial production. -European Union to provide 40 Million Euros for Balochistan Water Conservation Projects European Union and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) have agreed to work in Balochistan in Water Conservation projects. This was told by EU Ambassador to Pakistan Jean-Francois Cautaian and IUCN Country Representative Mahmood Akhtar Cheema who called on Advisor to Prime Minister on Climate Change Malik Amin Aslam. Under the agreement European Union will provide forty million Euros and IUCN will provide technical and human resource assistance.The Advisor briefed the delegation about the Ministry of Climate Change performance in environmental protection and conservation and apprised them the" Recharge Pakistan Project " which aims at raising the under water table by conserving flood water in the right and left bank of Indus River reservoirs, that water could be utilised for domestic as well as horticulture purposes. -Pakistan, Turkey could increase bilateral trade between through FTA Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between Pakistan and Turkey could potentially increase bilateral trade with direct impact in the emerging geo-political scenario, said Secretary General of The Businessmen Panel (BMP-Federal) and former chairman of FPCCI standing committee Ahmad Jawad on Monday. -Punjab government to construct tunnel at Baba Guru Nanak birthplace for Sikh Pilgrims Provincial Minister Human Rights & Minority Affairs Aijaz Alam Augustine Monday said Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government had planned the construction of a tunnel from the railway station Nankana Sahib to the birthplace of Baba Guru Nanak to facilitate the Sikh pilgrims. The minister was talking to a delegation of minorities, led by MPA Mahendra Pal Singh, here. He said that after completion of the project, the Sikh pedestrian pilgrims would be able to reach the birthplace of Baba Guru Nanak more comfortably. He said that under the PTI government, equal opportunities were being provided to the minorities in each sector besides protecting them. He said that provision of special funds for upgradation of the minority communities' worship places, upkeep and protection of their graveyards and their residential areas would be ensured. MPA Mahendra Pal Singh acknowledged the efforts made by the PTI government for the Sikh community. -$1 billion export opportunity for Pakistan Chief Executive Officer Pakistan Furniture Council (PFC) Mian Kashif Ashfaq has said Pakistan has great potential to export at least one billion dollars handmade wood furniture annually if the government properly patronizes furniture industry. In a statement, he urged the government to introduce a skill development programme for the export-oriented furniture industry with a view to promoting the country’s value-added sector. He said that a tax exempted furniture sector in Pakistan will enliven the economy in general, create new jobs and increase production level -Bakhtiar calls for investor-friendly regulations in Gwadar Planning, Development and Reform Minister Makhdoom Khusro Bakhtiar on Monday called for the provision of basic facilities to uplift Gwadar. He was chairing a meeting in the federal capital to review progress made on the Gwadar Master Plan project. The Gwadar Development Authority director general briefed the meeting about the master plan. It was decided that Gwadar would be made a green, clean and environment-friendly city. The minister instructed the authorities to initiate the process of preparing investor-friendly regulations in order to attract maximum investment in the port city. -‘Govt taking all possible measures to facilitate private sector’ President Dr Arif Alvi said on Monday that revival of the economy was among his top priorities, adding that the government was committed to taking all possible measures to facilitate businesses. “The government is committed to developing the private sector through investment promotion, improvement in the ease of doing business, employment generation and fast growth of manufacturing sector,” he stated while talking to Amreli Steels Chairman Abbas Akberali. The president underscored that investment in value-added products, where the country enjoyed a comparative advantage, was vital for economic revival. He said despite all challenges, the incumbent government was striving hard to develop an ecosystem which could attract investment in the country. -FBR resolved 20% of total tax evasion and fraud cases involving billion of rupees in 2018, unearthed tax evasion worth Rs170 billion throughout Pakistan last year Around 20% of the overall tax evasion and fraud cases involving billions of rupees have been resolved by the tax department during 2018. The Director-General Intelligence and Investigation-Inland Revenue department has unearthed tax evasion worth Rs170 billion throughout Pakistan. Moreover, official data regarding these cases shows around 50,000 real estate transactions worth around Rs600 billion at deputy commissioner (DC) rate have been unearthed. However, the market value of these transactions unearthed is possibly going to be higher than the stated amount. Out of these, around 7,500 transactions included people who were not present in tax rolls. Likewise, cases of people not on the tax rolls who purchased vehicles more than Rs10 million were also unearthed. According to an official, the number of these kinds of people numbers in the thousands in Islamabad alone. And all case reports were forwarded to the Federal Board of Revenue’s regional tax offices (RTOs) and large taxpayers’ units (LTUs) for recovery and execution. -Govt to install 0.1m digital meters by Feb-end Federal Minister for Power Omar Ayub Khan has directed electricity distribution companies to immediately undertake GIS (geographic information system) mapping of all 11-kilovolt feeders and replace 100,000 electromagnetic meters with digital meters by the end of February 2019 in order to reduce line losses. The directives were issued in a meeting with chief executive officers of all the power distribution companies at the committee room of the Power Division on Monday. The minister directed the CEOs to personally inspect the power transformers of various capacities on a random basis to ascertain their mechanical fitness. He also called for launching a clean-up operation in the highly populated areas and removing hazardous wires and other such things. -Peshawar airport to commence night-time flight operations after five years After a gap of five years, Bacha Khan International Airport in Peshawar will start night-time flight operations from January 22. The first flight, after the resumption of 24-hour flight operations, will be to Sharjah. Night flight operations were ceased in 2014 after gunmen fired at a Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) aircraft while it was landing. One passenger was reported dead in the incident while a member of the cabin crew was injured. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (K-P) Chief Minister Mahmood Khan was apprised about the plan and has been requested to appear for the inaugural flight. On January 3, the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) installed a state-of-the-art full body scanner at the terminal to check for smuggling and money laundering. -Weekly review: KSE-100 index posts gains for third successive week The stock market had a somewhat decent performance during the outgoing week as the KSE-100 index advanced 258 points or 0.66% to settle at 39,307. It was the third successive weekly rise, indicating that the cloud of uncertainty that hovered over the market was finally vanishing. The renewed interest was seen ahead of the upcoming mini-budget announcement, hinting that the new finance bill may bring good news for the investors. Expectations of a possible reduction or abolition of advance tax of 0.02% on brokers fuelled positive sentiments at the bourse. The positivity was evident on first trading day of the week as the benchmark index rallied, following Finance Minister Asad Umar’s reassurances to the business community during his visit to Karachi at the weekend. Additionally, anticipation of measures to improve ease of doing business and reduction in input cost for the export-oriented sector also helped boost sentiments. -Mazari underscores need for restructuring in Sindh, Punjab police Underscoring the need for restructuring in Sindh and Punjab police, Minister for Human Rights Shireen Mazari on Monday accused Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) government of politicizing police. Mazari said that time has come to end the decades of tolerance for killing through encounters. She said that cops involved in Sahiwal shootout should be given exemplary punishment. The minister clarified that Prime Minister Imran Khan had not appreciated the counter terrorism department.
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